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Plagiarism, Citing and Referencing at UWI St. Augustine: Citing and Referencing

Plagiarism, referencing and copyright issues at UWI

Contents of this page:

  • Citation Styles at UWI
  • What is citing and referencing?
  • When to cite:
  • Examples of formats to cite:
  • What you must cite:
  • Reasons for citing:
  • Do not need to cite:
  • In-text citations
  • References
  • Reference Management Software

Description of this guide:

This guide provides resources to assist with citing and referencing at The University of the West Indies (UWI), St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago

The reference and formatting styles recommended for each faculty are listed in the UWI Thesis Guide 2015.




What is citing and referencing?

  • Citing refers to inclusion of a brief note in the text, which ndicates that the information at that point comes from an outside source
    • Citations occur throughout the body of a work
  • Referencing is a list of resources entitled Reference List/Bibliography/Works Cited listing at the end of your written text. 

When to cite:

  • Giving statistics
  • Info is unique and most people don’t know it
  • If readers ask, “How do you know that?”
  • When you paraphrase or summarise someone else’s work
  • Use a direct quotation or  someone else’s ideas
  • Good reason for using quotations
    • You want to support or add credibility to your arguments
    • The original is difficult to rephrase
    • The original is so good that you want to preserve the language

Quoting is good, but stringing a bunch of quotes together without analysis and well-crafted transitions is bad. 

Examples of formats to cite:

  • Books, journals,
  • E-books, e-journals
  • Proceedings, conference papers, lectures
  • Images (graphs, tables, photos, multimedia, diagrams)
  • Websites, webpages
  • Designs, drawings, plans
  • Computer code
  • Online videos
  • Legal docs (laws, bills, treaties, case studies)
  • Unpublished documents
  • Interviews
  • Blogs, tweets, emails
  • Maps, Google Maps
  • Data
  • Music, media 

Citation Styles at UWI

At UWI, each Faculty has specific Style guides that are recommended for use. please see UWI Thesis Guide 2015 to discover which style guide is relevant to your Faculty:

At the School of Education, UWI STA - American Psychological Society (APA) 7th ed.: UWI STA Library Guide

  • All new students are to use APA 7th
  • Current graduate students who are submitting theses this year may continue in APA 6th ed. (unless the student wishes to do so in APA 7th) and, if submitting theses in 2021-2022 may do so in either 6th or 7th ed. By 2022-2023 - only APA 7th should be used.

Chemistry Department, FST, UWI STA - American Chemical Society (ACS):  UWI STA Library Guide

Chicago Manual of Style (Author-Date format) - 17th ed.: UWI STA Library Guide

Chicago Manual of Style (Author-Date format) - 16th ed.: UWI STA Library Guide

Chicago Manual of Style (Notes and Bibliography format) - 16th ed.: UWI STA Library Guide

Modern Languages Association (MLA) 8th ed.: UWI STA Library Guide

Modern Languages Association  (MLA) 7th ed.: UWI STA Library Guide

Oxford University Standard on Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA): UWI STA Library Guide

Vancouver: Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. 2nd ed.  

  • Further support with citing and referencing is available at the Campus Libraries. The Faculty Liaison Librarians would be happy to assist.
  • If you are doing a research paper or thesis, you are advised to check with your Faculty Librarian early in the process to give guidance on how to format and reference in accordance with UWI Thesis guidelines and the required citation style. 

Reasons for citing:

  • Enable others to build on or verify your research
  • Show your familiarity with other scholars' ideas on a subject
  • Show that you have consulted widely and have acknowledged relevant ideas  from seminal works to the most current on a given topic
  • Give credit to others for their work
  • Give support for an assertion in the text, therefore enhancing the credibility of the work
  • Relieve the writer of the responsibility for the truth or the accuracy of the statement
  • Differentiate between which ideas are yours and which come from others
  • It is ethical to do so – it is about intellectual honesty and professional courtesy
  • Develop within yourself academic and personal integrity
  • Avoid the serious academic and personal consequences of plagiarising
Plagiarism is not a legal issue, it is an academic infringement

In-text citations

In-text citations are generally placed after direct and indirect quotes.
Direct quotes
  • Using the author’s exact words
Indirect quotes
  • Paraphrasing
  • Summarising


  • Convey the idea using your own words
  • Do not just change a word or two, copy entire phrases and use the same sentence structure.
  • May quote a phrase/sentence but must use quotation marks.
  • Usually write about the same length as the original
  • e.g., Harrison argues, refers to, explains, hypothesises, compares


  • A brief account, in your own words, of what the author said
  • Follow the same order of ideas as the original
  • Use only what is most important or relevant from the text
  • Do not include your interpretation/analysis within the summary
  • Make a clear distinction between your thoughts and someone else's
  • Can introduce with “According to Smith….” or “Smith concludes that….”He demonstrated, proved, ... etc.


Why have a standard format for references?
  • To comprehend or decipher a reference easily
  • To save time
  • To be more efficient in finding relevant information

A reference is made by putting together all the details needed to find a piece of information

  • in a specified order
  • with a specific syntax
  • with specific punctuation

Different details are needed for different formats of information.

Consistency and accuracy are important

Check your references before submitting your work, even if you have used bibliographic software
Do not cite Wikipedia, go back to the source of the info
Do not cite Google images, go back to the source webpage
Key is to put in sufficient information for the reader to find the original item

Reference Management Software

To download EndNote X9 software: Log in to the UWI Students' Portal, go to "myDocuments", there you will see the installation files for EndNote X9 .

Go to 


What you must cite:

Written or spoken words of someone else:

  • ideas
  • opinions
  • theories
  • analysis
  • comments
  • discussion
  • conclusions

Using someone else’s

  • code
  • figures, diagrams, charts
  • tables
  • maps
  • designs
  • drawings
  • plans
  • images
  • music
  • photos
  • artwork

Do not need to cite:

  • Your own opinion (unless previously published)
  • Common knowledge
    • Facts, events, concepts or dates that most people would know or that you are likely to find in a general encyclopedia.
    • Within your discipline, it refers to information that is generally known to people familiar with that discipline. 

Related UWI Guides