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Sports: Citation and Referencing

Guide to resources in sports


MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. The edition that is currently used is the 7th. The MLA Handbook is the association's guide for on the preparation of research papers. It gives step-by-step advice on every aspect of writing papers, from selecting a topic to submitting the completed paper. It provides an authoritative presentation of MLA documentation style for use in students' research and writing.

Available in the Library  (LB2369.G53 2009)

Basic Tips for MLA Citation and Referencing

MLA in-text citation

In-text citations: Author-page style

Hughes stated that political rallies  were not well attended in the last election campaign (71).

"Political rallies  were not well attended in the last election" (Hughes 71).

Humans  have been described as " spiritual beings" (Maxwell 4).

In-text citations for print sources by a corporate author

Philosophers have become more analytical thinkers with more information at their disposal (Alexandria Society 11).

According to the Alexandria Society, Philosophers have become more analytical thinkers with more information at their disposal (11).

Citing authors with same last names

Despite some philosophers stating that certain ethical principles are illogical (R. Miller 12), others opine that they are very much logical and set certain guidelines that we adhere to (A. Miller 4).

Citing a work by multiple authors

Jones, Wright, and Thomas argue that poverty reduction measures in Jamaica is inadequate (76).

The authors state that poverty reduction measures in Jamaica is inadequate (Jones, Wright, and Thomas 76).


For more MLA examples, clink the link below.

Referencing & Citation Tools


It is a free easy-to-use tool  that aids in your collection, organization, citation, and sharing of research sources.


A web-based service designed to help students and researchers through the process of writing a research paper.


This is a free reference manager and academic social network that can assist you in organizing your research, collaborating with others online, and discovering the latest research.

Reference Manager

One of the standard software tools for publishing and managing bibliographies. (NB  UWI registered students and staff  have access to  this software for downloading to personal computers.  Check MITS for more details.

Works Cited Examples

Book with One Author

King, Stanford. Ethics and Morality. New York: Penguin, 1987. Print.

Book with More Than One Author

Hopkins, James, and Neal Lennon The Investigative Mind. Boston: Allyn, 1998. Print.

Where there are more than three authors, you may choose to list only the first author followed by et al. (Latin for "and others").

Wisom, Tyler, et al. Mental Capacity: an introduction to Philosophy of the mind. Logan: Utah State UP, 2001. Print.

A Work done by an Editor

Jiminez, Ramon. Mental Slavery. Ed. Graham Rutherford. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996. Print.

An article from an Online Dateabase

Junge, Wolfgang, and Ralph Pauli. “Nature's Rotary Electromotors.” Science 29 Apr. 2005: 642-44. Science Direct. Web. 5 Mar. 2009.