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Using the MLA (9th) Edition

A guide to properly using the MLA citation style

Works Cited

Works Cited - Introducing Containers

Works Cited - Core Elements


1. Author.

2. Title of source.

3. Title of container,

4. Other contributors,

5. Version,

6. Number,

7. Publisher,

8. Publication date,

9. Location.

Works Cited - Core Elements - Authors



1. Single Author

         Minot, Stephen. Three Genres. Pearson, 2003.

2. Two Authors

          Sennett, Richard, and Jonathan Cobb. The Hidden Injuries of                                    Class. Vintage Books, 1973.

3. More Than Two Authors

         Smith, John, et. al. Writing and Erasing: New Theories for Pencils. Utah                      State UP, 2001

4. Two or More Books by the Same Author

         Young, DeanElegy on a Toy Piano. University of Pittsburgh Press, 2005.

          ---. Embryoyo: New Poems. McSweeney's, 2007.

5. Book With No Author

         Encyclopedia of Cats. Feline Press, 1991.

6. E-Books

         Gikandi, SimonNgugi wa Thiong'o. Cambridge UP, 2000. ACLS                                 Humanities E-book,





Works Cited - Core Elements - Title of Source



1. Book

     Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. MacMurray, 1999

2. Web Page

          URLs can get lengthy and can become cumbersome in citations.                 MLA 9 now advises shortening URLs that run over three full lines.

     N.B. MLA also advises against using URL-shortening websites                     like


     Hollmichel, Stephanie. "The Reading Brain: Differences between Digital                           and Print." So Many Books, 25 Apr. 2013,                     




3. Print Journal Articles

        NOTE: If the journal does not use volume numbers, cite the issue              numbers only.

         Pasquaretta, Paul. "On the Indianness' of Bingo: Gambling and the Native                         American Community." Critical Inquiryvol. 20, no. 4,                                       1994, pp. 151-87         

4. Online Journal Article

          Collins, Ross. "Writing and Desire: Synthesizing Rhetorical Theories of                             Genre and Lacanian Theories of the Unconscious."                                               Composition Forum, vol. 33, Spring 2016,


5. Articles from a database

    Goldman, Anne. "Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading                                 Dante." The Georgia Reviewvol. 64, no.1, 2010, pp.                                       69-88. JSTOR.


MLA 9th advises if an article is found in a database that the DOI be used as unless otherwise indicated. It is more stable than a URL.


6. Photographs

         Laessele, Albert. Dancing Goat. 1937. Louis Round Wilson Special                                  Collections Library, North Carolina Collection                                                     Photographic Archives, 12 Feb. 2013,                                                  



7. Online video

        Deep Roots. YouTube, uploaded by National Library of Jamaica,

            29 Sept. 2016,                                         v=KO5xRPvviGA&t=5s

8. Film & DVD

         Luhrmann, Baz, director. Romeo + Juliet. 1996. Performance by                                 Leonardo DiCaprio, Claire Danesand John Leguizamo, 20th                                 Century Fox, 2004.


9. Album

        Bob Marley & the Wailers. Legend. Island Records, 1984.