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Using the MLA (9th) Edition

A guide to properly using the MLA citation style

What's New in the 9th Edition

So what so new about the 9th edition of the MLA Handbook?


Published in April 2021, the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook works as both a textbook and a reference guide.  An all-in-one resource that makes MLA style easier to learn and use for writers at any level, the handbook includes:

  • Expanded, in-depth guidance on how to use the MLA template of core elements to create works-cited-list entries that shows what each core element is, where to find it, and how to style it
  • Clarification that element names are not always literal and can apply to a range of situations (e.g., the Publisher element can refer to the publisher of a book or a sponsoring organization like the theater company that put on a play)
  • A new, easy-to-follow explanation of in-text citations
  • A new chapter containing recommendations for using inclusive language
  • A new appendix with hundreds of sample works-cited-list entries listed by publication format, including books, databases, websites, YouTube videos, interviews, and more
  • Updated guidelines on avoiding plagiarism
  • A new chapter on formatting a research paper
  • New, expanded guidelines on spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and more
  • A new chapter on using notes in MLA style